语法俱乐部第五章笔记 介词短语

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  1. 所谓介词短语,就是在介词后面加上一个名词短语当受词而构成的意义单元,在句子中当做修饰词(形容词或副词),用来修饰名词、动词、形容词与副词,它的位置通常是在所修饰的对象后面,例:

    • The company is in trouble.
    • I am leaving for Hong Kong.
    • The country is rich in mineral wealth.
    • The new janitor works half-heartedly at best.
  2. 介词与介副词

    • 有一种词类,看起来和介词一模一样,但是后面却没有受词,而是直接当做副词使用,这种词类称为介副词,应当做副词诠释,例:
      • Come in.
      • The soldier stood up.
    • 介副词还经常和介词共同使用,例:
      • The plumber went down to the basement.
        • down:介副词,后面没有受词,直接修饰动词went
        • to:介词,后面接the basement当受词,构成一个介词短语,当地方副词使用,修饰动词went
      • He has gone over to your house.
        • over:介副词,直接修饰动词has gone
        • to:介词,后面接your house当受词,构成一个介词短语,当地方副词使用,修饰动词has gone
  3. 介词与片语动词

    • 例1:The man slept on the couch.
    • 例2:The man turned on the light.
    • 例1是 S + V 句型,on the couch 是介词短语,当地方副词使用,修饰动词slept的地方
    • 例2是 S + V + O 句型,这时候要把turn on当一个动词看待,后面the light是动词turn on的受词,否则,如果将on the light当成介词短语,做地方副词修饰动词turn,那么句子意思就变成:那个人在灯上旋转,这样解释显然不通
    • 类似turn on这种情况,在动词后面加上介副词,由两个以上单字构成,产生了新的意义而应该当做动词来诠释,这种构造就称为“片语动词”(phrasal verbs)
    • 片语动词的种类:片语动词可分成及物动词与不及物动词,而及物动词中又分成可有拆开的片语和不可拆开得片语
      • 及物动词,不可拆开(受词必须放在片语后面)
        • get over 康复,痊愈
          • It’s only a cold, you’ll get over it soon enough.
        • look into 调查,了解
          • The manager will look into your complaint at once.
        • take after 类似,像
          • Heny takes after his farther.
        • stand by 支持
          • Don’t worry. I’ll stand by you.
        • 如果stand by后面没有受词,则表示“等待,准备”,为不及物片语动词,例:
          • Your team is next. Please stand by.
      • 及物动词,可有拆开(受词可以放在片语后面,也可以把片语拆开放中间)
        • bring up 抚养
          • That woman brought up eight children.
          • That woman brought eight children up.
          • 像bring up这种片语动词,属于及物动词,它的受词可有放在后面,也可有放在中间,这一类的片语动词,如果受词是代名词的话(如 them),则必须把片语动词拆开,受词放中间,例:
            • That woman brought them up.
        • call off 取消
          • The boss has called off the meeting.
          • The boss has called the meeting off.
          • The boss has called it off.
        • turn down 拒绝
          • I am going to turn down his offer.
          • I am going to turn his offer down.
        • make up 捏造,编造
          • He made up a long story.
          • He made a long story up.
      • 不及物动词
        • come about 发生
          • How did this all come about.
        • fall down 下跌
          • Business has falled off badly since the SARS epidemic.
        • go off 爆炸
          • The bomb went off in the middle of the night.
        • turn up 出现,出席
          • The meeting was postponed because too few people turn up.
      • 三个字以上的片语动词,及物,不可拆开
        • catch up with 赶上
          • He’s slowly catching up with his classmates in exam grades.
        • drop out of 退出
          • John hurt his leg and had to drop out of the race.
        • get away with 逃脱,全身而退
          • If you take the money, you can’t except to get away with it.
        • go back on 食言
          • I promised my kid a new notebook, so I can’t go back on my word now.
  4. 介词种类与用法

    • 空间介词,可分为点,线,面,体四个角度
      • 点:at
        • 例1:The bus will stop at the dock to pick up passengers.
          • 在bus行驶的路线上,dock是一个点
        • 例2:We have arrived at our destination.
        • 例3:The sniper is aiming at the kidnapper.
      • 线:on,along
        • 例1:The student memorized 10 new words on his way to school.
          • 从家到学校是一个线状的路程,属于线状的空间概念
        • 例2:There are many beautiful villages along the beach.
        • 例3:I see three bookstores on this street.
      • 面:on
        • 例1:I strained my eyes but couldn’t see any ship on the sea.
          • “海面”是个平面,在平面上,通常用on这个介词来表示
        • 例2:There is a picture hanging on the wall.
        • 例3:The speaker is standing on the platform.
      • 体:in
        • 例1:I like to stay in my office because it’s quiet there.
          • 所谓点、线、面、体的认定,其实是主观的,上面的例句中,把办公室视为一个具有长、宽、高的立体看待,所以用介词in
        • 例2:We‘ll go our separate ways, and meet at my office at three.
          • 这个例子中,office是约碰面的地点,所以用at
        • 例3:I think I’ll walk, there are too many cars in the street.
          • 上例中把street视为一个立体空间,说里头的车子太多了
    • 时间介词,以at表示点,以in表示在一段时间内,以on标示出具体的日期
      • 例1:I will meet you at six o’clock.
        • 六点钟是时间上得点,应该用at,类似的例子有:at noon,at midnight,at dinner,at sunrise,at sunset,比较特别的是at night
      • 例2:I do most of my work in the morning.
        • “早上”是一段时间,应该用in,类似的例子有:in the evening,in May,in Summer,in 2007
      • 例3:My birthday is on January 23.
        • 讲出哪一天,介词通常要用on,例:on Monday,on the morning of June 20,on New Year’s Day
    • 其他介词
      • apart from 除了…之外
        • 这个介词有两种不同的用法,它可以相当于except for,表示“除了…外就没了”
        • 例1:We had no trouble on the way apart from a flat tire.
        • 但是也可相当于in addition to 表示 除了…之外还有,
        • Apart from a flat tire, we also ran out of gas.
      • at 以价钱或速度
        • We joined the tour at $3000 per person.
        • The car was going at 90km per hour.
      • but 除了
        • No one but a fool would accept a challenge like that.
      • in 以某种表达方式
        • How do you say that in English?
        • He signed his name in black ink.
      • up to 这个介词短语有好几种不同的意思
        • It’s not up to me to decide.
        • I’m not up to this job.
          • 这个工作我胜任不了
        • Do you know what Tom has been up to recently?
          • 你知道Tom最近在搞什么吗?
    • 不易分辨的介词
      • on one’s way / in one’s way
        • 例1:He is on his way to Tokyo.
          • 由出发地去东京,这是一条路线,属于线的概念,所以用on
        • 例2:Stop aside! You are in my way!
          • 让别人让路,因为挡住了你,这时候路就变成具有长,宽,高的体的概念
      • arrive in / arrive at
        • 一般的语法书有规则:大的地方用in,小得地方用at,但是这种规则不太管用,首先,大小没有一个客观的判断标准,其次,没有讲出重点:其实,in和at就是体和点得区别
        • 例1:We’ll arrive at Honolulu in 5 minutes, where we’ll refuel before flying on to San Francisco.
          • Honolulu是个城市,不可谓不大,但此时是把它当做飞行路线上得一个停靠点,所以用at
        • 例2:The home-coming hero arrived in town and was greeted by the crowed gathered along Main Street.
          • town比Honolulu小的多,可是它是这位英雄进入的地方,因而被视为立体的空间,用in
      • made of / made from
        • from 有出自于的意思,比较有距离,间接,of:还可以在生成物中看出原材料
        • 例1:Those shoes were made from rubber tires.
        • 例2:This chair is made of wood.
      • between / among
        • between有标示位置(夹在…之间)的功能,among则没有
        • 例1:The Rhine flows between France and Germany.
        • 例2:Among the major cities in the world, ShangHai is probable developing most rapidly.
        • 例3:Switzerland lies between France, Germany, Austria and Italy.
          • 此句中虽然有四个国家,但是还是用between,因为这四个国家是用来标示位置的,表示把瑞士夹在中间
      • throw to / throw at
        • to代表方向,类似toward,at 强调目标点
        • 例1:I forgot my keys, Please get them at my desk and throw them to me.
        • 例2:The kids are throwing rocks at the poor dog.
      • from to / from through
        • through 表示穿过,用它来表示起止时间时,意思是头尾都包含在内,to则没有
        • 例1:The circus will be here four months, from May to Septemper.
          • 马戏团要在这里表演四个月,从五月到九月,用to没有讲明日期,也由可能是五月中旬到九月中旬,所以大概是四个月
        • 例2:The circus will be here five months, from May through September.
          • 马戏团要在这里表演五个月,从五月到九月
      • above / over
        • above表示相对高度超过,over则又标示定点的功能
        • 例1:Mt.Everest soars above all other peaks in the Himalayas.
        • 例2:The little child couldn’t keep the umbrella over his head and soon get wet.
      • below / under
        • 与上一对类似,below表示相对高度低,under表示在…下方
        • 例1:The submarine is below the surface now.
        • 例2:Watch out! There is a dog under your car.
      • except / except for
        • 一般情况下,这2个用法和意义都相同,但是放在句首时,只能用except for
        • 例1:You can all go except / except for George.
        • 例2:Except for George, you can all go.
      • on / about
        • 文章或演讲的主题,如果采用比较正式的口吻,比较专业或学术化,就应该用on来表示,如果是非正式口吻,用about就行了
        • He has written a book on the temples of the Upper Nile.
        • He is talking about his childhood.