语法俱乐部第十三章笔记 合句

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  1. 限定子句和非限定子句

    • 子句:如果有两个以上的单句写在同一个句子里面,那么里面的每一个单句都可以称为子句
    • 限定子句(finite clauses):具有限定动词,限定动词是指具备了人称变化、时态变化等等,可以用来制造一个完整单句的动词
    • 非限定子句(nonfinite clauses):子句中只有非限定动词,非限定动词是指像现在分词,过去分词,动名词,不定式等等称为动状词的东西
    • 例1:He understands that he did the wrong thing then.
      • He understands … 这个子句为限定子句,因为具有限定动词 understands(第三人称单数,现在简单式)
      • He did … 这个子句也是限定子句,因为具有限定动词 did
    • 例2:He hates his girlfriend’s spending so much time on makeup every day.
      • He hates … 这个子句为限定子句
      • His girlfriend’s spending … 这个子句为非限定子句
  2. 句子的三种层次

    • 初级的单句:必须是限定子句
      • We are sitting here in the sun.
      • We can see snow-covered hills.
    • 中级的复合句:由两个以上的限定子句经由连接词连接而成
      • We are sitting here in the sun, and we can see snow-covered hills.
      • As we are sitting here in the sun, we can see snow-covered hills.
    • 高级的减化子句:在复合句中尽量只留下一个限定子句,其余的尽可能改写为非限定子句,省略掉所有重复与空洞的部分,大力压缩,尽量只留下一个限定子句,获得最精简的修辞效果
      • Sitting here in the sun, we can see snow-covered hills.
  3. 对等连接词

    • 对等连接词(主要是and,or与but三个)可以用来连接句子中任何两个对等的部分(单字或短语),也可以连接两个对等子句,所谓对等,是指构造与内容两个方面都要对称,而且对得越是工整越好。
    • 主语
      • George and Mary were good friends.
      • George, Mary, and Jane were always together.
    • 动词
      • We always worked and played together.
      • We ran, jumped, and shouted for joy.
    • 其他,句子中的受词位置,补语位置,或者修饰语,只要用上连接词,都可以放入两个以上
      • We take our holidays in July or August.
  4. 相关字组

    • 对等连接词有时候交代的不够清楚,这时候可以用对等连接词的相关字组(correlatives)来把话说得更清楚,例:
      • He spoke to George and me.
        • 对等连接词连接名词George和代名词me,共同放在介词to后面当受词,构成介词短语用来修饰spoke的对象,但是有一点模糊,他是对George和我一起讲话,还是分别对George和我讲了两次话,这时可以用相关字组来交代的更清楚:
        • He spoke both to Geroge and to me. (分别对每个人讲话)
    • 三个主要连接词的相关字组
      • both A and B
      • either A or B; neither A nor B
      • not only A but also B
    • 相关字组的对称要求
      • 使用以上相关字组时要注意,A和B这两个位置放进去的东西必须对称,在相关字组中,对称的要求比一般的对等连接词更严格
      • Gold jewelry looks beautiful and elegant. (正确)
      • Gold jewelry looks beautiful and lasts forever. (正确)
      • Gold jewelry lasts forever but expensive. (错误)
      • Gold jewelry not only looks beautiful but also elegent. (错误)
      • Gold jewelry looks not only beautiful but also elegent. (正确)
      • Gold jewelry not only looks beautiful but also lasts forever. (正确)
  5. 对等子句

    • 一个句子中也可以靠对等连接词来塞入两个以上的限定子句,称为对等子句
    • Everyone was in the hall, and the door had been closed.
    • Most of us were in the hall, the doors had been closed, and the lights were out.
    • He did not like us, and everyone knew, but no one admitted it.
    • Either he did not like our hair, or we had offended him in some other way.
  6. 相关字组的倒装

    • 例:Chine is not only the world’s most populous state but also the largest market in the 21st century.
      • 两个都是名称短语,符合对称的要求
    • 如果把not only 移到句首来加强语气,就变成:
      • Not only is china the world’s most populous state but also the largest market in the 21st century. (错误)
      • 此时就变得不对称了,前面是限定子句,后面是名称短语,所以要把后面也改成限定字句才符合对称的要求:
      • Not only is china the world’s most populous state but it is also the largest market in the 21st century.
  7. 对等子句的省略

    • 例:Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth and generally harm the fetus. (错误)
    • 这个句子可以视为下面这个句子的省略:
    • Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth of the fetus, and it may generally harm the fetus.
    • 这两个对等子句的主语smoking by pregnant women相同,fetus也有一定的重复,对等子句的省略原则就是:相对应的位置如果是重复的元素,就可以省略掉一个,不过上面这句中,虽然fetus是重复的,但是扮演的角色不同,一个是介词受词,一个是动词受词,所以前面fetus可以省略,但是介词of不能,正确省略如下:
    • Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth of and generally harm the fetus.
  8. 总结

    • 这一章重点是对等连接词连接的对象要前后对称