语法俱乐部第十四章笔记 名词子句

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  1. 复句:由两个以上的限定子句构成,包括主要子句和从属子句。主要子句是一个本身可以独立的句子,从属子句则需要有连接词或关系词引导,放在主要子句中当做名词使用(称为名词子句),当做形容词使用(称为形容词子句),或当做副词使用(称为副词子句),例:

    • Chicago is a grain-shiping center.
    • Chicago is a center that ships grain. (形容词子句)
    • He worked overtime for the money.
    • He worked overtime because he needed the money. (副词子句)
    • I saw the mirror.
    • I saw that the mirror was broken. (名词子句)
  2. 名词子句的种类:名词子句依其构造可以分成两种,由直述句改造而来的名词子句、以及由疑问句改造而来的名词子句

    • 来自直述句
      • 直述句改造为名词子句,做法很简单,只需要在直述句前面加上一个单独的、无意义的从属连接词that(表示那句话或那件事),就是一个名词子句,可以放入主要句子中当做名词使用了,例如:
        • He didn’t take the money.
        • I belive that.
        • -> I belive that he didn’t take the money. (S V O)
    • 来自疑问句
      • 由疑问句改造出来的名词子句,又可以分为两种:来自Information Question、以及来自Yes/No Question
      • 来自Information Question
        • 由疑问词(如who which what when why how where)引导的疑问句,称为Information Question,这种疑问句,里头的疑问词可以充当现成的从属连接词,所以只要把问号拿掉,不必加任何东西就可以直接称为名词子句,例如:
          • What happened at his party?
          • I never asked him the question.
          • -> I never asked him what happened at his party. (S V O O)
          • Where did he keep the money?
          • He never revealed the question.
          • 此例中,where并非是这个疑问句的主词,拿掉问号时要把动词顺序还原
          • -> He never revealed where he kept the money.
      • 来自 Yes/No Question
        • 如果疑问句中并没有疑问词,这种疑问句称为Yes/No Question,它要改成名词子句的话必须加上从属连接词whetherif,例如:
          • Is it going to rain soon?
          • By looking at the sky, I can tell the question.
          • -> By looking at the sky, I can tell whether(or if) it is going to rain soon.
          • 注意,在写作时尽量使用whether来表示是否,避免使用if,因为:
            • whether只有一种解释:是否,if则有是否和如果两种解释,所以用whether来表达会更清楚
            • 句首位置只能用whether,不能用if来表示是否,例:
              • Whether we can win the big prize will be decided soon.
            • 介词后面可以用whether不能用if,例如:
              • The manager hinted at whether he would sign the contract.
  3. 名词子句的位置

    • 主语位置

      • That子句
        • Something is strange.
        • He didn’t show up on time.
        • -> That he didn’t show up on time is strange. (S V C)
        • 如果名词子句很长,直接放入主语位置使用时可能会头重脚轻,令人不清楚,这时候可以用it这个虚字,例:
        • -> It is strange (that) he didn’t show up on time.
        • 如果当主语用的that子句后移,前面有明确的主要子句it is strange带头,名词子句在后面,这样就不再会令读者会错意,这时候,只要句子不是太长,太复杂,这个无意义的连接词that就可以省略
      • Wh- 子句
        • Where is he hiding now?
        • The question is a big mystery.
        • -> Where he is hiding now is a big mystery.
        • -> It is a big mystery where he is hiding now.
    • 动词的受词位置

      • That子句
        • The defendant said something.
        • He didn’t do it.
        • -> The defendant said (that) he didn’t do it. (S V O)
        • 如果受词后面还有受词补语,那么这个受词位置通常不时候直接放进名词子句这种庞大的构造,否则它和前面的受词补语会分不清楚,这时候必须用虚字it来暂代受词,把名词子句移到补语后面,例:
        • I find something strange.
        • He didn’t show up on time.
        • -> I find it strange (that) he didn’t show up on time.
      • Wh- 子句
        • Why had he bought so much of that stock?
        • He explained the question.
        • -> He explained why he had bought so much of that stock.
    • 补语位置

      • That子句
        • The car is ruined. The important thing is that thing.
        • We are all right.
        • -> The important thing is (that) we are all right.
      • Wh- 子句
        • We all know what happened. The question is this.
        • Can we do anything about it?
        • -> The question is whether we can do anything about it.
    • 同位格位置

      • That子句
        • The story (that) he once killed a man might just be true.
          • he once killed a man,是个直述句,前面加上连接词that之后成为名词子句,放在主要子句的主语the story后面当做它的同位格。that子句当同位格使用时,只要句子不是太长,太复杂,连接词that可以省略
        • 不明确的同位格:I am afraid (that) I can’t help you.
          • 其实是此句的省略:I am afraid of that thing (that) I can’t help you.
          • that thing是空洞的,没有意义的
          • that thing的内容就是that I can’t help you,有重复
          • of that thing是个可有可无的介词短语,所以可以把这个介词短语省略掉
          • 这个句子中的名词子句仍应视为用在同位格位置(that thing的同位格)
      • Wh- 子句
        • The question why the dinosaurs died out may never be answered.
          • why did the dinosaurs die out?改为名词子句,只要把问号拿掉,还原动词顺序,成为why the dinosaurs died out,疑问词why就是现成的连接词,这个名词子句放在主语the question后面,当做同位格使用
        • 不明确的同位格:I am not sure what caused the delay.
          • 其实是此句的省略:I am not sure of the question what caused the dely.
    • 介词的受词位置

      • 此位置不能放入直述句外加that构成的名词子句,只能放入疑问词引导的名词子句,例:
        • My response depends on the question.
        • What did he really mean by that.
        • -> My response depends on what he really meant by that.
      • 如果是直述句要放在这个位置,则要换一种方式,例:
        • His response dwells on the fact.
        • I owe him a favor.
        • 要把直述句加that放在the fact后面当同位格
        • -> His response dwells on the fact (that) I owe him a favor.
  4. 评论子句

    • 有一些经常听到,类似口头禅的用语,如you know,I guess,I suppose等等,看起来也是限定子句的构造,但是无甚意义,只是放在句子中不重要的位置当做点缀,这种用语称为评论子句,例如:
    • This is your last offer, I suppose?
    • He was really afraid, I believe.
    • This trick, you know, will never work.
  5. 引用句

    • 直接引用句会在引用文字前后加上双引号(“…”),间接引用句则会把双引号移除,引用文字直接以名词子句方式纳入主要子句中,例如:
      • The guard said, “The road is closed.” (S V O)
      • The guard said (that) the road was closed. (S V O)
      • 注意直接引用与间接引用在动词时态方面的变化,另外引用文字也可以移到句首来加强语气,这时候主要子句的动词可以选择倒装到主语前面,也可以不倒装,如:
      • “The road is closed”, said the guard.
      • “The road is closed”, the guard said.
      • The road was closed, said the guard.
      • The road was closed, the guard said.
      • 在写作的时候,引用句如果采用倒装,修辞效果会更好,例如:
      • The earthquake was a 6.9, said Dr.Chang, Director of the Yangmingshang Geological Observatory.
  6. 总结

    • 如果是直述句,外加无意义的连接词that就可以变成名词子句
    • 如果是有疑问词引导的疑问句,则不必加连接词,直接以疑问词扮演连接词,没有疑问词的疑问句要加上whether当连接词
    • 名词子句属于名词类,必须放入主要子句中的名词位置(主语,受词,补语,同位格)使用,但是that子句不能放在介词后面当受词位置,如果要放入,则应放在介词受词后当同位格使用