语法俱乐部第十五章笔记 副词子句

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  1. 副词子句是副词类,在主要子句中用它来修饰动词、形容词、副词等等,基本上它只是个可有可无的修饰语,整个删掉的话也不会影响到主要子句句型的正确性

  2. 副词子句的构造

    • 来自直述句

      • 直述句要改造为副词子句,同样要加从属连接词,但并不是加没有意义的that,而是要加各式各样如because,although,if,as,when,where等等有意义的连接词,用来表示各式各样的逻辑关系,如原因,让步,条件,状态,时间,地方等等,例:
        • I believe that ghosts are real. (名词子句)
        • I believe that, because I have seen one with my own eyes. (副词子句)
      • 直述句改造为副词子句,也可以外加so…that,such…that,in that,in order that之类含有that在内的连接词,表示目的,结果,限制等等,例:
        • He said sincerely that he was sorry. (名词子句)
        • He said it so sincerely that his wife forgave him right away. (副词子句)
    • 来自Information Question

      • 有疑问词引导的疑问句要改造成副词子句,做法则是第一:拿掉问号,还原成非疑问句的动词顺序(这个部分和制造名词子句完全相同);第二:在疑问词前面加上no matter(表示不论),或者在疑问词后面加上-ever的字尾(同样表示不论),就会变成副词子句,例:
        • Where the criminal is hiding is anybody’s guess. (名词子句)
        • No matter where the criminal is hiding, the police is going to get him soon. (副词子句)
        • Wherever the criminal is hiding, the police is going to get him soon. (副词子句)
    • 来自Yes/No Question

      • 如果是没有疑问词引导的疑问句要改造成副词子句,那么除了要拿掉问号之外,也要外加一个从属连接词whether,但是这时候whether不再解释为是否,而是表示不论,如果不加whether,改成加no matter也是一样,仍然表示不论,例:
        • Whether he’s still alive (or not) is difficult to say. (名词子句)
        • Whether he’s still alive (or not), I’m not going to marry anyone else. (副词子句)
        • No matter he’s still alive (or not), I’m not going to marry anyone else. (副词子句)
  3. 副词子句的种类

    • 时间、地方

      • He became more frugal after he got married. (副词子句修饰became的时间)
      • I‘ll be waiting for you until you’re married. (副词子句修饰will be的时间)
        • 未来时间的时间副词子句,虽然发生的时间还没有真正到达,可是语气上必须把这个未来时间当做已经到了现在,所以时态要用现在时表示
      • It was all over when I got here. (副词子句修饰was的时间)
      • A small town grew where three roads met. (副词子句修饰grew的地方)
    • 条件

      • If he calls, I‘ll give hime the message. (副词子句修饰will give的条件)
      • He won’t have it his way, as long as I’m here. (副词子句修饰 won’t have的条件)
      • Suppose you were ill, where would you go? (副词子句修饰would go的条件)
        • 此句中主要子句与副词子句都采用了假设语气来表示“现在时间非事实”
    • 原因、结果

      • As there isn’t much time left, we might as well call it a day. (副词子句修饰might call的原因)
      • There‘s nothing to worry about, now that Father is back. (副词子句修饰is的原因)
      • He looked so sincere that no one doubted his story. (副词子句修饰形容词sincere造成的结果)
      • The mother locked the door from the outside, so that the kids couldn’t get out when they saw fire.(副词子句修饰locked造成的结果)
    • 目的

      • The mother locked away the drugs so that the kids wouldn’t swallow any by mistake. (副词子句修饰locked的目的)
      • I‘ve typed out the main points in boldface, in order that you won’t miss them. (副词子句修饰have typed out的目的)
      • I‘ve underlined the key points, lest you miss them. (副词子句修饰have underlined的目的)
      • You’d better bring more money, in case (that) you should nedd it. (副词子句修饰bring的目的)
    • 让步

      • Although you may object, I must give it a try. (副词子句修饰must give)
      • While the disease is not fatal. it can be very dangerous.
    • 限制

      • As far as money is concerned, you needn’t worry.
      • Picasso was a revolutionary in that he broke all traditions.
    • 方法、状态

      • He plays the piano as a maestro does.
      • He writes as if he is left handed.
        • he is,叙述事实的语气,表示此人就是左撇子
      • He writes as if he were left handed.
        • he were,现在时间非事实,be动词不管人称一律用were,表示此人不是左撇子
      • He writes as if he was left handed.
        • he was,采用was,一方面这种讲法不正式,另一方面非事实的假设语气也比较弱一些,表示此人有可能是左撇子
  4. 一条语法规则:

    • 表示时间和条件的副词子句,用现在式代替未来式,例:
      • He will call you when he returns.
    • 如果副词子句是未来完成式,要用现在完成式代替,例:
      • You can have this computer when I have finished - in about half an hour.
    • 有时候,可以反过来利用时态与语气来判断一个从属子句是名称子句还是副词子句、到底该如何解释,例:
      • I’ll let you know when he will return.
        • when引导的是名词子句,解释为:我会让你知道他回来的时间。
      • I’ll let you know when he returns.
        • when引导的是时间副词子句,解释为:当他回来的时候,我会通知你。
      • I have no idea if this plan will work or not.
        • if引导的是名词子句,全句为:I have no idea about the question if this plan will work or not, if子句是放在同位格位置,about the question可以省略
      • I have a large reward for you if this plan works.
        • if引导的是条件副词子句